Optimal Cerebral Perfusion Pressure During Delayed Cerebral Ischemia After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

M. Weiss, W. Albanna, C. Conzen, M. Megjhani, J. Tas, K. Seyfried, N. Kastenholz, M. Veldeman, T.P. Schmidt, H. Schulze-Steinen, M. Wiesmann, H. Clusmann, S. Park, M. Aries, G.A. Schubert*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: The recommendation of induced hypertension for delayed cerebral ischemia treatment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage has been challenged recently and ideal pressure targets are missing. A new concept advocates an individual cerebral perfusion pressure where cerebral autoregulation functions best to ensure optimal global perfusion. We characterized optimal cerebral perfusion pressure at time of delayed cerebral ischemia and tested the conformity of induced hypertension with this target value. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: University hospital neurocritical care unit. PATIENTS: Thirty-nine aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with invasive neuromonitoring (20 with delayed cerebral ischemia, 19 without delayed cerebral ischemia). INTERVENTIONS: Induced hypertension greater than 180 mm Hg systolic blood pressure. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Changepoint analysis was used to calculate significant changes in cerebral perfusion pressure, optimal cerebral perfusion pressure, and the difference of cerebral perfusion pressure and optimal cerebral perfusion pressure 48 hours before delayed cerebral ischemia diagnosis. Optimal cerebral perfusion pressure increased 30 hours before the onset of delayed cerebral ischemia from 82.8 +/- 12.5 to 86.3 +/- 11.4 mm Hg (p < 0.05). Three hours before delayed cerebral ischemia, a changepoint was also found in the difference of cerebral perfusion pressure and optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (decrease from -0.2 +/- 11.2 to -7.7 +/- 7.6 mm Hg; p < 0.05) with a corresponding increase in pressure reactivity index (0.09 +/- 0.33 to 0.19 +/- 0.37; p < 0.05). Cerebral perfusion pressure at time of delayed cerebral ischemia was lower than in patients without delayed cerebral ischemia in a comparable time frame (cerebral perfusion pressure delayed cerebral ischemia 81.4 +/- 8.3 mm Hg, no delayed cerebral ischemia 90.4 +/- 10.5 mm Hg; p < 0.05). Inducing hypertension resulted in a cerebral perfusion pressure above optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (+12.4 +/- 8.3 mm Hg; p < 0.0001). Treatment response (improvement of delayed cerebral ischemia: induced hypertension(+) [n = 15] or progression of delayed cerebral ischemia: induced hypertension(-) [n = 5]) did not correlate to either absolute values of cerebral perfusion pressure or optimal cerebral perfusion pressure, nor the resulting difference (cerebral perfusion pressure [p = 0.69]; optimal cerebral perfusion pressure [p = 0.97]; and the difference of cerebral perfusion pressure and optimal cerebral perfusion pressure [p = 0.51]). CONCLUSIONS: At the time of delayed cerebral ischemia occurrence, there is a significant discrepancy between cerebral perfusion pressure and optimal cerebral perfusion pressure with worsening of autoregulation, implying inadequate but identifiable individual perfusion. Standardized induction of hypertension resulted in cerebral perfusion pressures that exceeded individual optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in delayed cerebral ischemia patients. The potential benefit of individual blood pressure management guided by autoregulation-based optimal cerebral perfusion pressure should be explored in future intervention studies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-191
Number of pages9
JournalCritical Care Medicine
Volume50
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022

Keywords

  • brain ischemia
  • cerebrovascular circulation
  • critical care
  • subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • CEREBROVASCULAR AUTOREGULATION
  • INDUCED HYPERTENSION
  • REACTIVITY
  • GUIDELINES
  • MANAGEMENT
  • VASOSPASM
  • EVENT

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