On the measurement of rumination: a psychometric evaluation of the ruminative response scale and the rumination on sadness scale in undergraduates.

J. Roelofs*, P.E.H.M. Muris, M.J.H. Huibers, F.P.M.L. Peeters, A.R. Arntz

*Corresponding author for this work

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Rumination is considered a specific cognitive vulnerability factor that is thought to play a prominent role in the maintenance of depressive symptoms. The present study investigated the psychometric properties of two measures of rumination, the ruminative response scale (RRS) and the rumination on sadness scale (RSS) in undergraduates (N = 331). A joint factor analysis yielded three factors, 'rumination on causes of sadness', 'symptom-based rumination', and 'rumination on sadness'. The internal consistency of the rumination factors was good and the test-retest stability over a 6-month period of time was moderate. Support was also found for the construct validity of the rumination factors. Finally, the 'rumination on the causes of sadness' factor was found to moderate the relation between depression measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. More specifically, baseline depression was a strong predictor of future depression but this was particularly true for high ruminating individuals. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)299-313
JournalJournal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006

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