Aim To review the current literature and publications to assess the clinical features, recommended investigations and treatment for ocular tuberculosis in HIV infected patients. Methods Literature review. Results The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic affects as many as 37.9 million people. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is common in HIV infection and is a leading cause of death and morbidity. Common clinical presentations include anterior uveitis (granulomatous or otherwise), choroidal granulomas/tubercles, chorioretinitis, subretinal abscess, panophthalmitis, retinal detachment and vasculitis. The majority of clinical findings were in the posterior segment, appeared primarily infective (tubercles/chorioretinitis/abscess) and were largely seen in the context of pulmonary tuberculosis or disseminated disease. Current investigational patterns include corroborative tests such as tuberculin skin test or Interferon-gamma release assay. Systemic testing includes Computed Tomography, MRI or PET/CT scans. Newer Molecular techniques such as GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay and Line Probe assays (LPA) are increasingly important. Apart from standard ocular anti-inflammatory protocols, anti-tubercular treatment as per the clinical staging (latent or active) needs to be initiated. Initiation of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) is important and can be started soon after ATT. Conclusions Ocular manifestations within this group are distinct and unique investigational and therapeutic approaches are needed.
- INTRAOCULAR TUBERCULOSIS
- VITREOUS FLUID