Alzheimer's disease is associated with metabolic deficits and reduced mitochondrial function, with the latter due to the effects of oligomeric amyloid beta peptide (A beta O) on the respiratory chain. Recent evidence has demonstrated reduction of epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation, in Alzheimer's disease. Here we demonstrate a link between metabolic and epigenetic deficits via reduction of mitochondrial function which alters the expression of mediators of epigenetic modifications. A beta O-induced loss of mitochondrial function in differentiated neuronal cells was reversed using two novel antioxidants (1 and 2); both have been shown to mitigate the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and compound I also restores adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. While both compounds were effective in reducing ROS, restoration of ATP levels was associated with a more robust response to A beta O treatment. Our in vitro system recapitulates key aspects of data from Alzheimer's brain samples, the expression of epigenetic genes in which are also shown to be normalized by the novel analogues.
- Alzheimer's disease
- multifunctional radical quenchers