Nonbelieved Memories in The False Memory Archive

Henry Otgaar*, Charlotte Bücken, Glynis Bogaard, Kimberley A. Wade, A. R. Hopwood, Alan Scoboria, Mark L. Howe

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

32 Downloads (Pure)


The False Memory Archive is a unique art collection containing hundreds of false memory reports submitted by members of the general population. The current study aimed to analyze these reports. Specifically, we examined whether some of the memories reported in these submissions were better described as nonbelieved memories (NBMs). Furthermore, we investigated the reasons for why people decided that their memory was false and assessed the verification strategies that people used to validate their mental representation. Five hundred submissions were coded and more than half (53.4%) met the criteria for NBMs. Social feedback was the most frequently reported reason for reducing belief and asking family members was the most frequently mentioned memory verification strategy. Reports categorized as NBMs were more likely to include mention of memory verification strategies than were believed memories.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)429-438
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2019


  • False memory
  • Nonbelieved memory
  • Memory verification

Cite this