Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) ranks among the most common human congenital malformations, and has a multifactorial background in which both exogenous and genetic risk factors act in concert. The present report describes a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving a total of 285 nsCL/P patients and 1212 controls from the Netherlands and Belgium. Twenty of the 40 previously reported nsC/LP susceptibility loci were replicated, which underlined the validity of this sample. SNV-based analysis of the data identified an as yet unreported suggestive locus at chromosome 16p12.1 (p-value of the lead SNV: 4.17 x 10( -7)). This association was replicated in two of three patient/control replication series (Central European and Yemeni). Gene analysis of the GWAS data prioritized SH3PXD2A at chromosome 10824.33 as a candidate gene for nsCL/P. To date, support for this gene as a cleft gene has been restricted to data from zebrafish and a knockout mouse model. The present GWAS was the first to implicate SH3PXD2A in non-syndromic cleft formation in humans. In summary, although performed in a relatively small sample, the present GWAS generated novel insights into nsCL/P etiology.
- congenital malformation
- orofacial cleft
- cleft lip with or without cleft palate
- genome-wide association study
- NONSYNDROMIC OROFACIAL CLEFTS
- GENOTYPE IMPUTATION
- CANDIDATE GENES