OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of biomarkers to detect severe NEC. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The time point of surgery in necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is critical. Therefore, there is a need for markers that detect severe NEC, because clinical signs of severe NEC often develop late. This study evaluated the value of biomarkers reflecting intestinal cell damage and inflammation to detect severe NEC. METHODS: 29 neonates with NEC were included. Two definitions of moderate versus severe NEC were analyzed: medical NEC (n = 12) versus surgical or fatal NEC (n = 17); and Bell stage II NEC (n = 13) versus stage III NEC (n = 16). Urinary intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), serum amyloid A (SAA), C3a and C5a, and fecal calprotectin were measured. C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and platelet count data were measured in blood. RESULTS: In both definitions of moderate versus severe NEC, urinary SAA levels were significantly higher in severe NEC. A cut-off value of 34.4 ng/ml was found in surgical NEC versus medical NEC (sensitivity, 83%; specificity, 83%; LR+, 4.88 (95% CI, 1.37-17.0); LR-, 0.20 (95% CI, 0.07-0.60)) at diagnosis of NEC and at one day prior to surgery in neonates who were operated later on. Combination of urinary SAA and platelet count increased the accuracy, with a sensitivity, 94%; specificity, 83%; LR+, 5.53 (95% CI, 1.57-20.0); and LR-, 0.07 (95% CI, 0.01-0.48). CONCLUSION: Urinary SAA is an accurate marker in differentiating severe NEC from moderate NEC; particularly if combined with serum platelet count.
- ACID-BINDING PROTEIN