Neuroinflammation in Ischemic Stroke: Inhibition of cAMP-Specific Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) to the Rescue

L. Ponsaerts, L. Alders, M. Schepers, R.M.W. de Oliveira, J. Prickaerts, T. Vanmierlo*, A. Bronckaers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal(Systematic) Review article peer-review

3 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Ischemic stroke is caused by a thromboembolic occlusion of a major cerebral artery, with the impaired blood flow triggering neuroinflammation and subsequent neuronal damage. Both the innate immune system (e.g., neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages) in the acute ischemic stroke phase and the adaptive immune system (e.g., T cells, B cells) in the chronic phase contribute to this neuroinflammatory process. Considering that the available therapeutic strategies are insufficiently successful, there is an urgent need for novel treatment options. It has been shown that increasing cAMP levels lowers neuroinflammation. By inhibiting cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs), i.e., PDE4, 7, and 8, neuroinflammation can be tempered through elevating cAMP levels and, thereby, this can induce an improved functional recovery. This review discusses recent preclinical findings, clinical implications, and future perspectives of cAMP-specific PDE inhibition as a novel research interest for the treatment of ischemic stroke. In particular, PDE4 inhibition has been extensively studied, and is promising for the treatment of acute neuroinflammation following a stroke, whereas PDE7 and 8 inhibition more target the T cell component. In addition, more targeted PDE4 gene inhibition, or combined PDE4 and PDE7 or 8 inhibition, requires more extensive research.
Original languageEnglish
Article number703
Number of pages23
JournalBiomedicines
Volume9
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021

Keywords

  • ischemic stroke
  • neuroinflammation
  • neuroplasticity
  • PDE4
  • PDE7
  • PDE8
  • cAMP
  • MIDDLE CEREBRAL-ARTERY
  • REGULATORY T-CELLS
  • CYCLIC-NUCLEOTIDE PHOSPHODIESTERASES
  • HEALTH-CARE PROFESSIONALS
  • AREA POSTREMA
  • SELECTIVE INHIBITOR
  • FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY
  • IMPROVES MEMORY
  • GENE-EXPRESSION
  • BRAIN-DAMAGE

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