Brain activity assessed by electroencephalography (EEG) has been demonstrated to respond to conditioning techniques. The concept of modulating this activity has been called EEG biofeedback, more recently neurofeedback, and is based on operant learning principles. Technological advancements have significantly enhanced the ease and affordability of recording and analyzing brain activity. Thus, properly trained practitioners can implement these conditioning strategies in their practice. Recent research indicating evidenced-based efficacy has made this technique a more viable option for clinical intervention. The objective of this article is to highlight the learning principles that have provided the fundamentals of this neuromodulatory approach. In addition, it is recommended that future applications in clinical work, research, and development adhere to these principles.