Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) affords the opportunity to explore the feasibility of self-regulation of functional brain networks through neurofeedback. We localised emotion networks individually in thirteen participants using fMRI and trained them to upregulate target areas, including the insula and amygdala. Participants achieved a high degree of control of these networks after a brief training period. We observed activation increases during periods of upregulation of emotion networks in the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex and, with increasing training success, in the ventral striatum. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of fMRI-based neurofeedback of emotion networks and suggest a possible development into a therapeutic tool.
Johnston, S. J., Boehm, S. G., Healy, D., Goebel, R., & Linden, D. E. J. (2010). Neurofeedback: A promising tool for the self-regulation of emotion networks. Neuroimage, 49(1), 1066-1072. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.07.056