Aim To determine neurocognitive performance and behavioural problems in children with Panayiotopoulos syndrome. Method All 18 children (10 females, 8 males; mean age 4y 7mo; SD 1y 10mo) diagnosed with Panayiotopoulos syndrome at the Kempenhaeghe Epilepsy Center in the Netherlands between 2010 and 2017 were analysed retrospectively. All underwent a neuropsychological/behavioural assessment, an academic assessment, and a 24-hour electroencephalogram. Results Mean full-scale IQ (93.5; range 76-123; p=0.04) and performance IQ (93.2; range 76-126; p=0.04) were within the normal range, although significantly lower compared to the normative mean. Verbal IQ (96.3; range 76-118) and processing speed (96.1; range 74-114) were not significantly lower. Simple auditory/visual reaction times, visual attention, visual-motor integration, and verbal memory were significantly lower compared to normative values. On average, patients with Panayiotopoulos syndrome were 8 months behind in arithmetic speed and 11 months behind in reading speed for the number of months in school. Behavioural questionnaires revealed significantly higher scores on reported internalizing behavioural problems. Interpretation Children with Panayiotopoulos syndrome demonstrated diffuse cognitive dysfunction in full-scale IQ, performance IQ, visual attention, visual-motor integration, and verbal memory. A high incidence of internalizing behavioural problems was reported. This strongly suggests neuropsychological and behavioural comorbidity in children with Panayiotopoulos syndrome. What this paper adds
Children with Panayiotopoulos syndrome are at risk for cognitive deficits in various cognitive domains. Children with Panayiotopoulos syndrome are also prone to internalizing behavioural problems. Mild-to-severe academic underachievement was present in more than half of the children with Panayiotopoulos syndrome.
- AUTONOMIC STATUS EPILEPTICUS
- ILAE COMMISSION
- POSITION PAPER