Neither Fish nor Fowl. How EU Delegations Challenge the Institution of Diplomacy: The Cases of Moscow and Washington

Heidi Maurer*, Kristi Raik

*Corresponding author for this work

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4 Citations (Web of Science)


This article explores European diplomatic cooperation abroad since 2009 by studying diplomatic structures and practices in two key locations: Moscow and Washington, DC. It analyses the functions of European Union (EU) delegations as part of the hybrid EU foreign policy system and their way of engaging with the changing global patterns of diplomatic practice. The empirical analysis draws on extensive semi-structured interviews conducted in Moscow and Washington during 2013-2014. Our cases confirm the deeper institutionalization and intensification of European diplomatic cooperation abroad. The EU delegations increasingly assumed traditional diplomatic tasks and coordinated member states on the ground. The EU delegations' ability to establish good working relationships with member states as well as the leadership of key individuals (notably EU ambassadors) were key factors in shaping how this new system fell into place, which shows the continued prevalence of hybridity in EU foreign policy-making.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-74
Number of pages18
JournalThe Hague Journal of Diplomacy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2018


  • diplomacy
  • EU foreign policy
  • EU delegations
  • United States
  • Russia

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