National Constitutional Identity Ten Years on: State of Play and Future Perspectives

D. Fromage*, B. De Witte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


This introductory article lays out the background of the inquiry proposed by the contributions of this special issue, while also presenting its main findings and adopting a forward-looking stance. To this end, it first briefly recalls what the origins of the identity clause are, before it discusses what meanings this clause could have. Subsequently, the main conclusions of the various articles are presented. The final part concludes by restating that national identity remains an undefined concept, which can only be defined on a case-by-case basis by means of dialogue between national and European courts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)411-424
Number of pages14
JournalEuropean Public Law
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2021


  • National identity
  • constitutional identity
  • constitutional courts
  • judicial dialogue
  • European Court of Justice

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