Multiphasic 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in the Detection of Early Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patients with a PSA Level of Less Than 1 ng/mL: A Prospective Study of 135 Patients

Mohsen Beheshti*, Reyhaneh Manafi-Farid, Hans Geinitz, Reza Vali, Wolfgang Loidl, Felix M. Mottaghy, Werner Langsteger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


The main objective of this prospective study was to determine the impact of multiphasic acquisition of Ga-68-PSMA PET/CT in the detection of recurrent prostate cancer in the early stage of biochemical recurrence with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of less than 1 ng/mL. Also, Ga-68-PSMA PET/CT positivity was correlated with clinical parameters for the assessment of predictive markers. Methods: A prospective monocentric study was conducted on 135 prostate cancer patients with biochemical recurrence and a PSA level of less than 1 ng/mL. All patients had undergone initial prostatectomy, with additional radiation therapy in 19.3% of patients and androgen-deprivation therapy in 7.4%. The patients underwent dynamic acquisitions from the prostate bed (1-8 min after injection), standard whole-body acquisitions (60 min after injection), and limited-bedposition delayed acquisitions (120-150 min after injection). The studies were reviewed by 2 board-certified nuclear medicine specialists, independently. A combination of visual and semiquantitative analyses and correlation with morphologic (e.g., MRI) or clinical follow-up findings was used for the final interpretation of lesions as benign or malignant. Ga-68-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT positivity was also correlated with primary clinical findings. Results: Incorporating the information from all phases, we were able to detect 116 lesions in 49.6% of patients (22 local recurrences, 63 lymph nodes, and 31 distant metastases). The detection rates were 31.8%, 44.9%, and 71.4% for PSA, 0.2 ng/mL, 0.2 # PSA, 0.5, and 0.5 # PSA, 1, respectively. Additional dynamic or delayed phases resulted in better determination of equivocal lesions and a higher diagnostic performance in 25.9% of patients. Stand-alone dynamic and delayed images led to better interpretation of equivocal findings in the prostate bed (31.4%) and in other lesions (lymph node or bone) (20%), respectively. Conclusion: Ga-68-PSMA PET/CT showed promise for early detection of recurrent disease in patients with a PSA level of 0.5-1.0 ng/ mL. However, it showed limited value in patients with a PSA level of less than 0.5 ng/mL. Multiphasic Ga-68-PSMA PET/CT led to a better determination of equivocal findings. Although dynamic images may provide helpful information for assessment of the prostate bed, delayed acquisitions seem to have a greater impact in clarifying equivocal findings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1484-1490
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nuclear Medicine
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2020


  • prostate cancer recurrence
  • Ga-68-PSMA PET/CT
  • multiphasic imaging
  • low PSA

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