PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of multiphase CT scanning and different intravenous contrast media on contrast enhancement, attenuation correction and image quality in combined PET/CT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 140 patients were prospectively enrolled for F-18-FDG-PET/CT including a low-dose unenhanced, arterial and venous contrast enhanced CT. The first (second) 70 patients, received contrast medium with 370 (300) mg iodine/ml. The iodine delivery rate (1.3mg/s) and total iodine load (44.4g) were identical for both groups. Contrast enhancement and maximum and mean standardized FDG uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) were determined for the un-enhanced, arterial and venous PET/CT at multiple anatomic sites and PET reconstructions were visually evaluated. RESULTS: Arterial contrast enhancement was significantly higher for the 300mg/ml contrast medium compared to 370mgI/ml at all anatomic sites. Venous enhancement was not different between the two contrast media. SUVmean and SUVmax were significantly higher for the contrast enhanced compared to the non-enhanced PET/CT at all anatomic sites (all P<0.001). Tracer uptake was significantly higher in the arterial than in the venous PET/CT in the arteries using both contrast media (all P<0.001). No differences in tracer uptake were found between the contrast media (all P>0.05). Visual assessment revealed no relevant differences between the different PET reconstructions. CONCLUSIONS: There is no relevant qualitative influence on the PET scan from the use of different intravenous contrast media in its various phases in combined multiphase PET/CT. For quantitative analysis of tracer uptake it is required to use an identical PET/CT protocol.