Motivated strategies for learning questionnaire part B revisited: New subscales for an adult distance education setting

Celeste Meijs*, Joyce Neroni, Hieronymus J. M. Gijselaers, Ruslan Leontjevas, Paul A. Kirschner, Renate H. M. de Groot

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

11 Citations (Web of Science)


In the current study, the underlying factor structure of the learning strategies part of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), originally designed for traditional college students, was explored and a best-fit-solution for subscales was proposed for students in adult distance education (DE). Factor analyses revealed five factors (management of time and effort; complex cognitive strategy use; simple cognitive strategy use; contacts with others; academic thinking), including fewer items, which resulted in a shorter list than the original learning strategies part of the MSLQ. Cognitive strategies and management of time and effort were used most by adult DE students, contacts with others were used least. Compared to traditional college students, the findings in adult DE may be explained by a differential interpretation of items based on differences between educational systems, living and study circumstances, and age and experiences. The newly developed subscales may be considered for future research on learning strategies of students within adult DE in which the students can determine their own time, place, and pace of study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalThe Internet and Higher Education
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • Distance education
  • Learning strategy use
  • MSLQ
  • Adult students
  • Non-traditional students
  • Exploratory factor analyses
  • Confirmatory factor analyses

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