Molecular MRI of early thrombus formation using a bimodal alpha2-antiplasmin-based contrast agent

R.J. Miserus, M.V. Herias, L. Prinzen, M.B. Lobbes, R.J. van Suylen, A. Dirksen, T.M. Hackeng, J.W. Heemskerk, J.M. van Engelshoven, M.J.A.P. Daemen, M.A.M.J. van Zandvoort, S. Heeneman, M.E. Kooi

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether early thrombus formation can be visualized with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by the use of a novel bimodal alpha(2)-antiplasmin-based contrast agent (CA). BACKGROUND: Thrombus formation plays a central role in several vascular diseases. During the early phases of thrombus formation, activated factor XIII (FXIIIa) covalently cross-links alpha(2)-antiplasmin to fibrin, indicating the potential of alpha(2)-antiplasmin-based CAs in the detection of early thrombus formation. METHODS: A bimodal CA was synthesized by coupling gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and rhodamine to an alpha(2)-antiplasmin-based peptide. For the control CA, a glutamine residue essential for cross-linking was replaced by alanine. In vitro-generated thrombi were exposed to both CAs and imaged by MRI and 2-photon laser-scanning microscopy. Immunohistochemistry was performed on human pulmonary thromboemboli sections to determine the presence of alpha(2)-antiplasmin and FXIII in different thrombus remodeling phases. In vivo feasibility of the CA in detecting early thrombus formation specifically was investigated with MRI. RESULTS: In vitro-generated thrombi exposed to the alpha(2)-antiplasmin-based CA showed hyperintense magnetic resonance signal intensities at the thrombus edge. No hyperintense signal was observed when we used the alpha(2)-antiplasmin-based CA in the presence of FXIII inhibitor dansylcadaverine nor when we used the control CA. Two-photon laser-scanning microscopy demonstrated that the alpha(2)-antiplasmin-based CA bound to fibrin. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated substantial alpha(2)-antiplasmin staining in fresh compared with lytic and organized thrombi. The administration of CA in vivo within seconds after inducing thrombus formation increased contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs 2.28 +/- 0.39, n=6) at the site of thrombus formation compared with the control CA (CNRs -0.14 +/- 0.55, p = 0.003, n = 6) and alpha(2)-antiplasmin-based CA administration 24 to 48 h after thrombus formation (CNRs 0.11 +/- 0.23, p = 0.006, n = 6). CONCLUSIONS: A bimodal CA was developed, characterized, and validated. Our results showed that this bimodal CA enabled noninvasive in vivo magnetic resonance visualization of early thrombus formation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)987-96
JournalJACC-Cardiovascular Imaging
Volume2
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009

Cite this

Miserus, R. J., Herias, M. V., Prinzen, L., Lobbes, M. B., van Suylen, R. J., Dirksen, A., Hackeng, T. M., Heemskerk, J. W., van Engelshoven, J. M., Daemen, M. J. A. P., van Zandvoort, M. A. M. J., Heeneman, S., & Kooi, M. E. (2009). Molecular MRI of early thrombus formation using a bimodal alpha2-antiplasmin-based contrast agent. JACC-Cardiovascular Imaging, 2(8), 987-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcmg.2009.03.015