OBJECTIVE: Weight loss helps reduce the symptoms of the metabolic in the obese, but weight regain after active weight loss is common. We investigated the changes and predictive role of circulating adipokines hormones for weight regain in men during dietary intervention, and also effect of basal MetS status on weight regain. DESIGN AND METHODS: who continued to lose weight (WL) and 24 men who regained weight (WR) 6-month follow-up period after weight loss were selected from the Their circulating concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, retinol-binding 4 (RBP4), luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, total and free testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced active weight loss, and after a 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance diet, and analyzed together with anthropometrical and physiological parameters. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese men with MetS at baseline had higher risk to regain (odds ratio=2.8, P=0.015). High baseline RBP4, and low total SHBG are predictors of weight loss regain (different between WR and WL P=0.001, 0.038, 0.044, respectively), and may play roles in the link and weight loss regain.