SCOPE: Weight maintenance after intended weight loss is a challenge in an obesogenic environment. In a large multicentre dietary intervention study (DiOGenes), it has recently been demonstrated that a high-protein/low-glycaemic index (HP/LGI) diet was slightly more efficient in maintaining weight loss than low-protein/LGI or high-GI (LP/LGI or HGI) diets. Here, we use a proteomic approach to assess the molecular mechanisms behind this positive effect. METHODS AND RESULTS: A subset of the most successful (weight loser, n=12) and unsuccessful (weight re-gainer, n=12) individuals consuming the LGI diets with either high- or low-protein content (HP or LP/LGI), following an initial calorie deficit run-in weight loss phase, were analyzed at the plasma protein level. Proteomic analysis revealed 18 proteins regulated after 6 months of the dietary weight maintenance phase. Furthermore, 12 proteins were significantly regulated as a function of success rate under an HP diet, arising as candidate biomarkers of mechanisms of successful weight maintenance under an HP/LGI diet. Pregnancy-zone protein (PZP) and protein S (PROS1) were revealed as novel biomarkers of weight maintenance showing opposite effects. CONCLUSION: Semantic network analysis of the 12 regulated proteins revealed that under an HP/LGI an anti-atherogenic effect and alterations of fat metabolism were associated with the success of maintaining the initial weight loss.
Rubio-Aliaga, I., Marvin-Guy, L. F., Wang, P., Wagniere, S., Mansourian, R., Fuerholz, A., Saris, W. H., Astrup, A., Mariman, E. C., & Kussmann, M. (2011). Mechanisms of weight maintenance under high- and low-protein, low-glycaemic index diets. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 55(11), 1603-1612. https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201100081