Consumption of fruits and vegetables has generally been associated with a decrease in cancer incidence and cardiovascular disease. Over the years, numerous bioactive compounds have been identified that contribute to these beneficial health effects. More recently, evidence is emerging that specific combinations of phytochemicals may be far more effective in protecting against cancer than isolated compounds. Combinatorial effects have been observed where any one of the single agents is inactive. Apart from interactions among dietary micronutrients, drug-phytochemical interactions have also been observed, indicating possibilities for improved cancer therapeutic strategies. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying such synergistic effects is still limited, but it appears that different combinations of complementary modes of actions are involved. In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that are likely to be involved in cancer chemoprevention and summarize the most important findings of those studies that report synergistic chemopreventive effects of dietary compounds.
de Kok, T. M., van Breda, S. G., & Manson, M. M. (2008). Mechanisms of combined action of different chemopreventive dietary compounds: a review. European Journal of Nutrition, 47(Suppl 2), 51-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-008-2006-y