Case-cohort analyses were performed on meat and fish consumption in relation to K-ras mutations in 448 colon and 160 rectal cancers that occurred during 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, and 2948 subcohort members of The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer. Adjusted incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed for colon and rectal cancer and for K-ras mutation status subgroups. Total fresh meat, most types of fresh meat and fish were not associated with colon or rectal cancer, neither overall nor with K-ras mutation status. However, several weak associations were observed for tumours with a wild-type K-ras, including beef and colon tumours, and an inverse association for pork with colon and rectal tumours; for meat products, an increased association was observed with wild-type K-ras tumours in the colon and possibly with G>A transitions in rectal tumours.
Brink, M., Weijenberg, M. P., de Goeij, A. F., Roemen, G. M. J. M., Lentjes, M. H. F. M., de Bruine, A. P., Goldbohm, R. A., & van den Brandt, P. A. (2005). Meat consumption and K-ras mutations in sporadic colon and rectal cancer in The Netherlands Cohort Study. British Journal of Cancer, 92(7), 1310-1320. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6602491