Measuring visual matching and short-term recognition memory with the CANTAB® Delayed Matching to Sample task in schoolchildren: Effects of demographic influences, multiple outcome measures and regression-based normative data

Annet Toornstra*, Petra P.M. Hurks, Wim Van der Elst, Gerjo Kok, Leopold M.G. Curfs

*Corresponding author for this work

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3 Citations (Web of Science)


The study aims to establish demographically corrected, pediatric norms for the computerized Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) test, a measure of "visual matching ability and short-term visual recognition memory, for non-verbalisable problems". The DMS was administered to n = 184 children aged 5.10 to 14.5 years old. The DMS is a 4-choice recognition task of non-verbal, abstract patterns. The child has "to select, among four different choice patterns, the one that matches a complex visual pattern presented," i.e., (the target stimulus). The DMS consists of two conditions: a) the overt condition in which the target stimulus and four choice patterns are shown simultaneously and b) the covert condition, in which the choice patterns are shown after the target pattern is covered. The DMS test provides three outcome measures: the accuracy score (i.e., the number of correct patterns selected), latency (i.e., the response speed) and the probability of making an error after an incorrect response. These outcome measures were calculated for both conditions and for both conditions combined. Results showed that demographic variables, such as age, sex, and/or level of parental education (LPE) affected scores on these outcome measures. Based on these data, demographically corrected norms were established for all outcome measures, per condition and for both conditions combined.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)189-218
Number of pages30
JournalChild Neuropsychology
Issue number2
Early online date22 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - 17 Feb 2020


  • Visual spatial memory
  • Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS)
  • demographic influences
  • continuous norms
  • school children in Ukraine
  • SEX
  • AGE

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