Measuring dysfunctional attitudes in the general population: the dysfunctional attitude scale (form A) revised

L.E. de Graaf*, J. Roelofs, M.J.H. Huibers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

110 Citations (Web of Science)


The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) was designed to measure the intensity of dysfunctional attitudes, a hallmark feature of depression. Various exploratory factor analytic studies of the DAS form A (DAS-A) yielded mixed results. The current study was set up to compare the fit of various factor models. We used a large community sample (N = 8,960) to test the previously proposed factor models of the DAS-A using confirmatory factor analysis. The retained model of the DAS-A was subjected to reliability and validity analyses. All models showed good fit to the data. Finally, a two-factor solution of the DAS-A was retained, consisting of 17 items. The factors demonstrated good reliability and convergent construct validity. Significant associations were found with depression. Norm-scores were presented. We advocate the use of a 17-item DAS-A, which proved to be useful in measuring dysfunctional beliefs. On the basis of previous psychometric studies, our study provides solid evidence for a two-factor model of the DAS-A, consisting of 'dependency' and 'perfectionism/performance evaluation'.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)345-355
JournalCognitive Therapy and Research
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2009

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