Introduction: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are susceptible to haemostatic disturbances. Monitoring the haemostatic capacity by conventional clotting tests is challenging.
Materials and Methods: Thrombin generation (TG) by Calibrated Automated Thrombography, clotting tests and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) measurements were performed to describe the relationship between haemostatic changes and alterations in these tests. Blood samples were collected before, during and after CPB. Furthermore, it was investigated whether TG measured intraoperatively, is associated with increased risk of bleeding postoperatively.
Results: TG diminished significantly (p <0.01) after heparinization in the presence and absence of platelets (37% and 50%) compared to baseline. After the start of CPB, TG elevated and persisted till the end of surgery but remained lower than preoperatively. Activated clotting time increased after heparinization and after the start of bypass compared to baseline (400% and 500%). Anti-FXa activity reduced on the start of CPB compared to the level after heparinization, to almost the baseline value following protamine reversal of heparin. The plasma levels of total and free TFPI elevated 9 and 14 fold during bypass and remained after protamine administration higher than preoperatively. Plasma D-dimer levels reduced (p <0.01) when bypass started. However, a marked elevation was observed in the following time points. TG in platelet-rich plasma measured after heparinization and after the start of CPB associated (p <0.05) with postoperative blood loss.
Conclusions: TG can be determined during CPB despite the high heparinization level, it reflects the haemostatic capacity better than clotting-based assays and might better predict bleeding when performed intraoperatively. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- cardiopulmonary bypass
- monitoring of haemostasis
- thrombin generation
- blood loss
- FACTOR PATHWAY INHIBITOR
- MOLECULAR-WEIGHT HEPARIN
- MONITORING UNFRACTIONATED HEPARIN
- ACTIVATED CLOTTING TIME
- CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS
- TISSUE FACTOR