Aim. - Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters glucagon, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and hepatic energy metabolism, yet the possible relationships remain unclear.
Methods. - In this observational study, lean insulin-sensitive control subjects (BMI: 23.2 +/- 1.5 kg/m(2)), age-matched insulin-resistant obese subjects (BMI: 34.3 +/- 1.7 kg/m(2)) and similarly obese elderly T2D patients (BMI: 32.0 +/- 2.4 kg/m(2)) underwent mixed-meal tolerance tests (MMTTs), and assessment of hepatic gamma ATP, inorganic phosphate (P-i) and lipids using P-31/H-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Meal-induced secretion of glucagon and incretins was calculated from incremental areas under the concentration-time curves (iAUCs). Peripheral and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity were assessed from time courses of circulating glucose, insulin and free fatty acids.
Results. - MMTT-derived peripheral insulin sensitivity was lowest in T2D patients (P <0.001), while glucagon concentrations were comparable across all three groups. At 260 min, GLP-1 was lower in T2D patients than in controls, whereas GIP was lowest in obese individuals. Fasting glucagon concentrations correlated positively with fasting (r = 0.60) and postprandial hepatocellular lipid levels (160 min: r= 0.51, 240 min: r = 0.59), and negatively with adipose tissue insulin sensitivity (r = -0.73). Higher meal-induced glucagon release (iAUC(0)(-260) (min)) correlated with lower fasting (r = -0.62) and postprandial P(i )levels (160 min: r = -0.43, 240 min: r = -0.42; all P <0.05). Higher meal-induced release of GIP (iAUC(0-260) (min)) correlated positively with fasting (r = 0.54) and postprandial serum triglyceride concentrations (iAUC(0-260 min, )r = 0.54; all P <0.01).
Conclusion. - Correlations between fasting glucagon and hepatic lipids and between meal-induced glucagon and hepatic P-i suggest a role for glucagon in hepatic energy metabolism. (C) 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
- Adipose tissue
- Hepatic fat content
- Insulin sensitivity
- CELL FUNCTION