OBJECTIVE: We sought to explore to what extent the presence of cardiometabolic and cardiovascular risk constitutions differ between pregnancies complicated by small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infancy, preeclampsia (PE), or a combination of both. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cohort study in women after pregnancies complicated by placental syndrome with fetal manifestations (SGA infancy [n - 113]), maternal manifestations (PE [n = 729]), or both (n = 461). Independent sample t test was used to compare cardiometabolic and cardiovascular risk factors between groups. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and adjusted odds ratios of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its constituents between groups. Adjustments were made for maternal age, parity, smoking, interval between delivery and measurements, and intrauterine fetal demise. RESULTS: The metabolic syndrome was present in 7.5% of women who delivered SGA infants, 15.6% of former PE women, and 19.8% of women after pregnancy complicated by both SGA and PE. Hypertension was observed in 25% of former PE women and 15% of women with solely SGA. Women who delivered a SGA infant had lower global vascular compliance compared to former PE women without SGA. CONCLUSION: Cardiometabolic risk factors consistent with metabolic syndrome relate to the maternal rather than to the fetal presentation of placental syndrome. Nonetheless, highest incidence of metabolic syndrome was observed in women with both PE and SGA. PE relates to chronic hypertension, whereas increased arterial stiffness seems to be associated with women who deliver a SGA infant.
- cardiovascular assessment
- metabolic syndrome
- small-for-gestational-age infancy