Mapping and Drawing to Improve Students' and Teachers' Monitoring and Regulation of Students' Learning from Text: Current Findings and Future Directions

Janneke van de Pol*, Mariette van Loon, Tamara van Gog, Sophia Braumann, Anique de Bruin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Citations (Web of Science)


For (facilitating) effective learning from texts, students and teachers need to accurately monitor students' comprehension. Monitoring judgments are accurate when they correspond to students' actual comprehension. Accurate monitoring enables accurate (self-)regulation of the learning process, i.e., making study decisions that are in line with monitoring judgments and/or students' comprehension. Yet, (self-)monitoring accuracy is often poor as the information or cues used are not always diagnostic (i.e., predictive) for students' actual comprehension. Having students engage in generative activities making diagnostic cues available improves monitoring and regulation accuracy. In this review, we focus on generative activities in which text is transformed into visual representations using mapping and drawing (i.e., making diagrams, concept maps, or drawings). This has been shown to improve monitoring and regulation accuracy and is suited for studying cue diagnosticity and cue utilization. First, we review and synthesize findings of studies regarding (1) students' monitoring accuracy, regulation accuracy, learning, cue diagnosticity, and cue utilization; (2) teachers' monitoring and regulation accuracy and cue utilization; and (3) how mapping and drawing affect using effort as a cue during monitoring and regulation, and how this affects monitoring and regulation accuracy. Then, we show how this research offers unique opportunities for future research on advancing measurements of cue diagnosticity and cue utilization and on how effort is used as a cue during monitoring and regulation. Improving measures of cue diagnosticity and cue utilization can provide us with more insight into how students and teachers monitor and regulate students' learning, to help design effective interventions to foster these important skills.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)951-977
Number of pages27
JournalEducational Psychology Review
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


  • Self-regulated learning
  • Student monitoring
  • Teacher monitoring
  • Metacomprehension accuracy
  • Mental effort
  • Text comprehension

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