In this paper, an approach to design information systems for traceability is proposed. The paper applies gozinto graph modelling for traceability of the goods flow. A gozinto graph represents a graphical listing of raw materials, parts, intermediates and subassemblies, which a process transforms into an end product, through a sequence of operations. Next, the graphical listing has been translated into a reference data model that is the basis for designing an information system for tracking and tracing.
Materials that are modelled this way represent production and/or purchase lots or batches. The composition of a certain end product is then represented through modelling all its constituent materials along with their intermediate relations. By registering all relations between sub-ordinate and super-ordinate material lots, a method of tracking the composition of the end product is obtained. When the entire sequence of operations required for manufacturing an end product adheres to this registering of relations, a multilevel bill of lots can be compiled. That bill of lots then, provides the necessary information to determine the composition of a material item out of component items. These composition data can be used to recall any items having consumed a certain component of specific interest (e.g., deficient), but also to certify product quality or to pro-actively adjust production processes to optimise the product quality in relation to its production characteristics (e.g., scarcity, costs or time). (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- product quality
- tracking and tracing
- traceability information management
- reference models
- information systems