Management of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Cancer Patients: It's High Time We Dealt with It

Fabiana Lucà, Iris Parrini, Maurizio Giuseppe Abrignani, Carmelo Massimiliano Rao, Laura Piccioni, Stefania Angela Di Fusco, Roberto Ceravolo, Irma Bisceglia, Carmine Riccio, Sandro Gelsomino, Furio Colivicchi, Michele Massimo Gulizia

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Cancer patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and, notably, a significant prevalence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). It has been shown that an elevated presence of cardiovascular risk factors in this setting leads to an interaction between these two conditions, influencing their therapeutic strategies and contributing to higher mortality. Nonetheless, cancer patients have generally not been evaluated in ACS trials, so that the treatment in these cases is still not fully known. We reviewed the current literature and discussed the best management for these very high-risk patients. The treatment strategy must be tailored based on the cancer type and stage, balancing thrombotic and bleeding risks. When the prognosis is longer than six months, especially if a clinical instability coexists, patients with ACS and cancer should be referred for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as soon as possible. Moreover, an invasive strategy should be preferred in STEMI patients as well as in NSTEMI patients who are considered as high risk. On the contrary, in clinically stable NSTEMI patients, a conservative non-invasive strategy could be adopted, especially in cases of a poor life expectancy and/or of high risk of bleeding. Drug-Eluting-Stents (DES) should be the first choice if an invasive strategy is adopted. Conservative therapy could instead be considered in cancer patients with more stable CAD at an increased risk of major bleeding complications. However, the duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and clopidogrel is recommended, but it should be as short as possible, whereas triple antithrombotic therapy is non-advised because it significantly increases the risk of bleeding. ACS management among cancer patients should be based on an accurate evaluation of the risk of thrombosis and bleeding. Future studies focused on choosing optimal strategies in tumor patients with ACS should be performed to treat this subset of patients better.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1792
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Volume11
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 24 Mar 2022

Keywords

  • ACUTE MYOCARDIAL-INFARCTION
  • ARTERY-DISEASE
  • ATRIAL-FIBRILLATION
  • CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS
  • DUAL ANTIPLATELET THERAPY
  • EARLY IMPLEMENTATION
  • IN-HOSPITAL MORTALITY
  • RAPID RISK STRATIFICATION
  • ST-SEGMENT-ELEVATION
  • SUPPRESS ADVERSE OUTCOMES
  • acute coronary syndromes
  • atherosclerosis
  • cancer
  • cardiotoxicity
  • thrombosis

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