Major bleeding during oral anticoagulant therapy associated with factor V activation by factor Xa

A. Maag*, N. van Rein, T.J. Schuijt, W.F. Kopatz, D. Kruijswijk, S. Thomassen, T.M. Hackeng, R.M. Camire, T. van der Poll, J.C.M. Meijers, M.H.A. Bos, C. van't Veer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Objective Plasma thrombin generation (TG) provides important information on coagulation status; however, current TG output parameters do not predict major bleeding of patients on anticoagulants. We recently reported that factor V (FV) activation by factor X (FX)a contributes importantly to the initiation phase of TG. Here we investigated how this pathway varies in the normal population and whether FXa-mediated activation of FV is associated with major bleeding in patients on anticoagulant therapy. Approach We employed TIX-5, a specific inhibitor of FV activation by FXa, to estimate the contribution of FXa-mediated FV activation to tissue factor (TF)-initiated TG. Results We show that the contribution of this pathway to plasma TG varies considerably in the normal population, as measured by the time needed to form the first traces of thrombin (TG lag time; mean prolongation by TIX-5 40%, range 0%-116%). Comparing patients on vitamin K antagonists (VKA) of the BLEED study (263 patients with and 538 patients without major bleeding), showed a marked prolongation in the median TG lag time in the presence of TIX-5 in cases (12.83 versus 11.00 minutes, P = 0.0030), while the TG lag time without TIX-5 only showed a minor although significant difference (5.83 vs. 5.67 minutes, P = 0.0198). The TIX-5 sensitivity (lag time + TIX-5/lag time + vehicle) in the upper quartile was associated with a 1.62-fold (95% confidence interval 1.04-2.52) increased risk of major bleeding compared to the lowest quartile. Conclusion A greater dependence on FXa-mediated activation of FV of TG is associated with increased risk of major bleeding during VKA therapy.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)328-338
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Issue number2
Early online date23 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2022


  • anticoagulants
  • factor V
  • factor X
  • hemorrhage
  • thrombin
  • RISK


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