Obesity is demonstrated to be associated with an enhanced inflammatory state, which is suggested to be a cause for the development of obesity-related morbidity. It was hypothesized that a decrease in body weight in morbid obese subjects would lead to a reduction of the inflammatory state in these subjects.Weight loss was achieved by gastric restrictive surgery in 27 morbidly obese patients. Preoperative as well as 3-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month postoperative plasma concentrations of inflammatory mediators macrophage inhibitory factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, soluble TNFalpha receptors 55 and 75, and leptin were measured.Macrophage inhibitory factor levels remained low normal for 6 months, during weight loss, after which they significantly increased to normal levels at 24 months postoperatively. The other inflammatory mediators remained elevated up to minimally 3 months postoperatively; thereafter they decreased significantly. Both TNFalpha receptors remained elevated up to at least 12 months postoperatively to decrease significantly at 2 yr postoperatively.This study demonstrates that during weight loss, after gastric restrictive surgery, inflammatory mediators remain elevated for at least 3 months postoperatively, suggesting initially an ongoing inflammatory state. However, 2 yr after surgery, the inflammatory mediators reach near normal values.These findings may be an explanation for the reduced comorbidity seen in morbidly obese patients after gastric restrictive surgery.