Ludii - The Ludemic General Game System

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic


While current General Game Playing (GGP) systems
facilitate useful research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for gameplaying, they are often somewhat specialised and computationally
inefficient. In this paper, we describe the “ludemic” general game
system Ludii, which has the potential to provide an efficient tool for
AI researchers as well as game designers, historians, educators and
practitioners in related fields. Ludii defines games as structures of ludemes – high-level, easily understandable game concepts – which allows for concise and human-understandable game descriptions. We formally describe Ludii and outline its main benefits: generality, extensibility, understandability and efficiency. Experimentally, Ludii outperforms one of the most efficient Game Description Language (GDL) reasoners, based on a propositional network, in all games available in the Tiltyard GGP repository. Moreover, Ludii is also competitive in terms of performance with the more recently proposed Regular Boardgames (RBG) system, and has various advantages in qualitative aspects such as generality.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationECAI 2020 : 24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence
EditorsGiuseppe De Giacomo, Alejandro Catala, Bistra Dilkina, Michela Milano, Senén Barro, Alberto Bugarín, Jérôme Lang
PublisherIOS Press
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)978-1-64368-100-9
Publication statusPublished - 2020
Event24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence - Santiago de Compastela, Santiago de Compastela, Spain
Duration: 29 Aug 20205 Sept 2020

Publication series

SeriesFrontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications


Conference24th European Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Abbreviated titleECAI 2020
CitySantiago de Compastela
Internet address



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