Abstract

AIMS: To determine the association of verbal intelligence, a core constituent of health literacy, with diabetic complications and walking speed in people with Type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: This study was performed in 228 people with Type 2 diabetes participating in the Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study. We examined the cross-sectional associations of score on the vocabulary test of the Groningen Intelligence Test with: 1) determinants of diabetic complications (HbA1c , blood pressure and lipid level); 2) diabetic complications: chronic kidney disease, neuropathic pain, self-reported history of cardiovascular disease and carotid intima-media thickness; and 3) walking speed. Analyses were performed using linear regression and adjusted in separate models for potential confounders and mediators. Significant age- and sex-adjusted associations were additionally adjusted for educational level in a separate model.

RESULTS: After full adjustment, lower verbal intelligence was associated with the presence of neuropathic pain [odds ratio (OR) 1.18, 95% CI 1.02;1.36], cardiovascular disease (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01;1.30), and slower walking speed (regression coefficient -0.011 m/s, 95% CI -0.021; -0.002 m/s). These associations were largely explained by education. Verbal intelligence was not associated with blood pressure, glycaemic control, lipid control, chronic kidney disease or carotid intima-media thickness.

CONCLUSIONS: Lower verbal intelligence was associated with the presence of some diabetic complications and with a slower walking speed, a measure of physical functioning. Educational level largely explained these associations. This implies that clinicians should be aware of the educational level of people with diabetes and should provide information at a level of complexity tailored to the patient. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1632–1639
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Volume33
Issue number12
Early online date1 Mar 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2016

Keywords

  • HEALTH LITERACY
  • SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS
  • CAROTID-ARTERY
  • RISK-FACTORS
  • KNOWLEDGE
  • AGE

Cite this

@article{fb797d47f18145cbb5ed0b38d62b1813,
title = "Lower verbal intelligence is associated with diabetic complications and slower walking speed in people with Type 2 diabetes: the Maastricht Study",
abstract = "AIMS: To determine the association of verbal intelligence, a core constituent of health literacy, with diabetic complications and walking speed in people with Type 2 diabetes.METHODS: This study was performed in 228 people with Type 2 diabetes participating in the Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study. We examined the cross-sectional associations of score on the vocabulary test of the Groningen Intelligence Test with: 1) determinants of diabetic complications (HbA1c , blood pressure and lipid level); 2) diabetic complications: chronic kidney disease, neuropathic pain, self-reported history of cardiovascular disease and carotid intima-media thickness; and 3) walking speed. Analyses were performed using linear regression and adjusted in separate models for potential confounders and mediators. Significant age- and sex-adjusted associations were additionally adjusted for educational level in a separate model.RESULTS: After full adjustment, lower verbal intelligence was associated with the presence of neuropathic pain [odds ratio (OR) 1.18, 95{\%} CI 1.02;1.36], cardiovascular disease (OR 1.14, 95{\%} CI 1.01;1.30), and slower walking speed (regression coefficient -0.011 m/s, 95{\%} CI -0.021; -0.002 m/s). These associations were largely explained by education. Verbal intelligence was not associated with blood pressure, glycaemic control, lipid control, chronic kidney disease or carotid intima-media thickness.CONCLUSIONS: Lower verbal intelligence was associated with the presence of some diabetic complications and with a slower walking speed, a measure of physical functioning. Educational level largely explained these associations. This implies that clinicians should be aware of the educational level of people with diabetes and should provide information at a level of complexity tailored to the patient. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.",
keywords = "HEALTH LITERACY, SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS, CAROTID-ARTERY, RISK-FACTORS, KNOWLEDGE, AGE",
author = "Spauwen, {P J J} and Remy Martens and Stehouwer, {C D A} and Verhey, {F R J} and Schram, {M T} and Sep, {S J S} and {van der Kallen}, {C J H} and Dagnelie, {P C} and Henry, {R M A} and Schaper, {N C} and {van Boxtel}, {M P J}",
note = "This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1111/dme.13105",
language = "English",
volume = "33",
pages = "1632–1639",
journal = "Diabetic Medicine",
issn = "0742-3071",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Lower verbal intelligence is associated with diabetic complications and slower walking speed in people with Type 2 diabetes

T2 - the Maastricht Study

AU - Spauwen, P J J

AU - Martens, Remy

AU - Stehouwer, C D A

AU - Verhey, F R J

AU - Schram, M T

AU - Sep, S J S

AU - van der Kallen, C J H

AU - Dagnelie, P C

AU - Henry, R M A

AU - Schaper, N C

AU - van Boxtel, M P J

N1 - This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

PY - 2016/12

Y1 - 2016/12

N2 - AIMS: To determine the association of verbal intelligence, a core constituent of health literacy, with diabetic complications and walking speed in people with Type 2 diabetes.METHODS: This study was performed in 228 people with Type 2 diabetes participating in the Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study. We examined the cross-sectional associations of score on the vocabulary test of the Groningen Intelligence Test with: 1) determinants of diabetic complications (HbA1c , blood pressure and lipid level); 2) diabetic complications: chronic kidney disease, neuropathic pain, self-reported history of cardiovascular disease and carotid intima-media thickness; and 3) walking speed. Analyses were performed using linear regression and adjusted in separate models for potential confounders and mediators. Significant age- and sex-adjusted associations were additionally adjusted for educational level in a separate model.RESULTS: After full adjustment, lower verbal intelligence was associated with the presence of neuropathic pain [odds ratio (OR) 1.18, 95% CI 1.02;1.36], cardiovascular disease (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01;1.30), and slower walking speed (regression coefficient -0.011 m/s, 95% CI -0.021; -0.002 m/s). These associations were largely explained by education. Verbal intelligence was not associated with blood pressure, glycaemic control, lipid control, chronic kidney disease or carotid intima-media thickness.CONCLUSIONS: Lower verbal intelligence was associated with the presence of some diabetic complications and with a slower walking speed, a measure of physical functioning. Educational level largely explained these associations. This implies that clinicians should be aware of the educational level of people with diabetes and should provide information at a level of complexity tailored to the patient. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

AB - AIMS: To determine the association of verbal intelligence, a core constituent of health literacy, with diabetic complications and walking speed in people with Type 2 diabetes.METHODS: This study was performed in 228 people with Type 2 diabetes participating in the Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study. We examined the cross-sectional associations of score on the vocabulary test of the Groningen Intelligence Test with: 1) determinants of diabetic complications (HbA1c , blood pressure and lipid level); 2) diabetic complications: chronic kidney disease, neuropathic pain, self-reported history of cardiovascular disease and carotid intima-media thickness; and 3) walking speed. Analyses were performed using linear regression and adjusted in separate models for potential confounders and mediators. Significant age- and sex-adjusted associations were additionally adjusted for educational level in a separate model.RESULTS: After full adjustment, lower verbal intelligence was associated with the presence of neuropathic pain [odds ratio (OR) 1.18, 95% CI 1.02;1.36], cardiovascular disease (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01;1.30), and slower walking speed (regression coefficient -0.011 m/s, 95% CI -0.021; -0.002 m/s). These associations were largely explained by education. Verbal intelligence was not associated with blood pressure, glycaemic control, lipid control, chronic kidney disease or carotid intima-media thickness.CONCLUSIONS: Lower verbal intelligence was associated with the presence of some diabetic complications and with a slower walking speed, a measure of physical functioning. Educational level largely explained these associations. This implies that clinicians should be aware of the educational level of people with diabetes and should provide information at a level of complexity tailored to the patient. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KW - HEALTH LITERACY

KW - SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS

KW - CAROTID-ARTERY

KW - RISK-FACTORS

KW - KNOWLEDGE

KW - AGE

U2 - 10.1111/dme.13105

DO - 10.1111/dme.13105

M3 - Article

C2 - 26926848

VL - 33

SP - 1632

EP - 1639

JO - Diabetic Medicine

JF - Diabetic Medicine

SN - 0742-3071

IS - 12

ER -