Background/Objectives:Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status has associated with muscle mass, strength and physical performance in people. Yet, in pre-frail and frail elderly people this association has studied. The objective of this study was to explore the association vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D status with muscle mass, strength and performance in a pre-frail and frail elderly cross-sectional study included 127 pre-frail and frail elderly people in Netherlands. Whole body and appendicular lean mass (ALM) (dual energy X- absorptiometry), leg strength (one repetition maximum), handgrip physical performance (short physical performance battery) were measured, blood samples were collected for the assessment of serum 25(OH)D status chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). In addition, habitual dietary (3-day food records) and physical activity data (accelerometers) were collected.Results:In total, 53% of the participants had a serum 25(OH)D below 50 nmol/l. After adjustment for confounding factors, 25(OH)D associated with ALM (beta=0.012, P=0.05) and with physical performance (beta=0.020, P<0.05). Vitamin D intake was associated with physical (beta=0.18, P<0.05) but not with ALM (P>0.05).Conclusion:In this frail population, 25(OH)D status is low and suggests a modest association with ALM and impaired physical performance. In addition, vitamin D intake associated with impaired physical performance. Our findings highlight for well-designed intervention trials to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on 25(OH)D status, muscle mass and physical performance pre-frail and frail elderly people.European Journal of Clinical online publication, 14 August 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.144.