Low incidence of postoperative urinary retention with the use of a nurse‑led bladder scan protocol after hip and knee arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study

N.P. Kort, Y. Bemelmans, Reinder Vos, M. G. M. Schotanus*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Purpose Postoperative urinary retention (POUR), defined as the inability to empty the bladder voluntary after surgery, is a commonly reported complication. This study reports the incidence and possible risk factors for POUR after elective fast-track hip or knee arthroplasty when using a nurse-led bladder scan protocol. Methods This retrospective cohort study included data from 803 patients who underwent unilateral hip or knee arthroplasty. Patients’ digital clinical records were reviewed for eligibility. Patients with incomplete data registration, preoperative bladder volume >250 ml, preexisting bladder catheterization, and/or patients following the outpatient pathway were excluded. Bladder volumes were assessed at different moments pre- and postoperatively. The outcome was the incidence of POUR, defined as the inability to void spontaneously with a bladder volume >600 ml, treated with indwelling catheterization. Further analysis between POUR and non-POUR patients was performed to detect possible risk factors for POUR. Results Six hundred and thirty-eight patients operated on primary unilateral hip or knee arthroplasty were analyzed. The incidence of POUR was 12.9% (n = 82, 95% CI 9.4– 15.5). Gender, age, BMI, ASA classification, preoperative bladder volume, type of anesthesia, type of arthroplasty, and perioperative fluid administration were not significant different between POUR and non-POUR patients. Patients with a bladder volume of >200 ml at the recovery room were at higher risk (OR 5.049, 95% CI 2.815–9.054) for POUR. Conclusions When using a nurse-led bladder scan protocol in fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty, the incidence of POUR was 12.9%, with a bladder volume of >200 ml at the recovery room as a risk factor for POUR. Level of evidence A retrospective cohort study, Level III.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)283-289
JournalEuropean Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018

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