AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Both energy restriction (ER) per se and weight loss improve glucose metabolism in obese insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Short-term ER decreases basal endogenous glucose production (EGP) but not glucose disposal. In contrast the blood glucose-lowering mechanism of long-term ER with substantial weight loss has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of loss of 50% of excess weight [50% excess weight reduction (EWR)] on EGP, whole-body insulin sensitivity and the disturbed myocellular insulin-signalling pathway in ten obese insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: A euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp with stable isotopes ([6,6-(2)H2]glucose and [2H5]glycerol) combined with skeletal muscle biopsies was performed during a very low energy diet (VLED; 1,883 kJ/day) on day 2 and again after 50% EWR. Oral blood glucose-lowering agents and insulin were discontinued 3 weeks prior to the VLED and at the start of the VLED, respectively. RESULTS: Loss of 50% EWR (20.3+/-2.2 kg from day 2 to day of 50% EWR) normalised basal EGP and improved insulin sensitivity, especially insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (18.8+/-2.0 to 39.1+/-2.8 micromol kg fat-free mass(-1) min(-1), p=0.001). The latter was accompanied by improved insulin signalling at the level of the recently discovered protein kinase B/Akt substrates AS160 and PRAS40 along with a decrease in intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Considerable weight loss in obese, insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients normalises basal EGP and improves insulin sensitivity resulting from an improvement in insulin signal transduction in skeletal muscle. The decrease in IMCL might contribute to this effect.
Jazet, I. M., Schaart, G., Gastaldelli, A., Ferrannini, E., Hesselink, M. K., Schrauwen, P., Romijn, J. A., Maassen, J. A., Pijl, H., Ouwens, DM., & Meinders, A. E. (2008). Loss of 50% of excess weight using a very low energy diet improves insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obese insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetologia, 51(2), 309-19. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-007-0862-2