Liver X receptor beta deficiency attenuates autoimmune-associated neuroinflammation in a T cell-dependent manner

J.F.J. Bogie, T. Vanmierlo, J. Vanmol, S. Timmermans, J. Mailleux, K. Nelissen, E. Wijnands, K. Wouters, P. Stinissen, J.A. Gustafsson, K.R. Steffensen, M. Mulder, N. Zelcer, J.J.A. Hendriks*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

The initiation and progression of autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is linked to aberrant cholesterol metabolism and overt inflammation. Liver X receptors (LXR) are nuclear receptors that function at the crossroads of cholesterol metabolism and immunity, and their activation is considered a promising therapeutic strategy to attenuate autoimmunity. However, despite clear functional heterogeneity and cell-specific expression profiles, the impact of the individual LXR isoforms on autoimmunity remains poorly understood. Here, we show that LXR alpha and LXR beta have an opposite impact on immune cell function and disease severity in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, an experimental MS model. While Lxr alpha deficiency aggravated disease pathology and severity, absence of Lxr beta was protective. Guided by flow cytometry and by using cell-specific knockout models, reduced disease severity in Lxr beta-deficient mice was primarily attributed to changes in peripheral T cell physiology and occurred independent from alterations in microglia function. Collectively, our findings indicate that LXR isoforms play functionally non-redundant roles in autoimmunity, potentially having broad implications for the development of LXR-based therapeutic strategies aimed at dampening autoimmunity and neuroinflammation.
Original languageEnglish
Article number102723
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Autoimmunity
Volume124
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Liver X receptors
  • Cholesterol metabolism
  • Immunometabolism
  • Autoimmunity
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • GENE-EXPRESSION
  • LXR-ALPHA
  • METABOLISM
  • TRANSREPRESSION
  • INFLAMMATION
  • SUMOYLATION
  • CHOLESTEROL
  • MICROGLIA
  • PATHWAYS

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