The use of stimulation electrodes implanted in the brain to control severely disabling neurological and psychiatric conditions is a fast emerging area of clinical neuroscience. For instance, high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) has become the surgical therapy of choice for advanced Parkinson's disease. This therapy improves motor disability substantially and also the quality of life, but some patients show postoperative behavioral changes such as depression and mania. These behavioral effects can be explained on the basis of the anatomical data. The STN is interconnected not only with motor areas, but also with associative and limbic regions. In this chapter, the author discusses relevant articles, provides anatomical details, and presents an integrated view.
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