If the aristocracy has been the subject of many studies, relatively speaking, in sociology and history, the aristocratic imaginary of the literature after the French Revolution remains poorly understood. Despite its significant character and continued impact on modern culture, in fact, it has not been studied in a specific, sufficiently systematic and global fashion until now. The literature of the first half of the twentieth century in particular is deeply interested in this multifaceted aristocratic imaginary. Shaping the trajectory and transformation of literature in a period marked by two global military conflicts, this imaginary raises the question of the nature of modern literary discourses and practices, of their values and functions. Consequently, a comparative study of these 'noble modernisms' and the divergent forms they have taken provides a much-needed complement to existing accounts of the European literatures of the first half of the twentieth century and their peculiar dynamics.