Lifetime cost-effectiveness and equity impacts of the Healthy Primary School of the Future initiative

Marije Oosterhoff*, Eelco A B Over, Anoukh van Giessen, Rudolf T Hoogenveen, Hans Bosma, Onno C P van Schayck, Manuela A Joore

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


BACKGROUND: This study estimated the lifetime cost-effectiveness and equity impacts associated with two lifestyle interventions in the Dutch primary school setting (targeting 4-12 year olds).

METHODS: The Healthy Primary School of the Future (HPSF; a healthy school lunch and structured physical activity) and the Physical Activity School (PAS; structured physical activity) were compared to the regular Dutch curriculum (N = 1676). An adolescence model, calculating weight development, and the RIVM Chronic Disease Model, calculating overweight-related chronic diseases, were linked to estimate the lifetime impact on chronic diseases, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), healthcare, and productivity costs. Cost-effectiveness was expressed as the additional costs/QALY gained and we used €20,000 as threshold. Scenario analyses accounted for alternative effect maintenance scenarios and equity analyses examined cost-effectiveness in different socioeconomic status (SES) groups.

RESULTS: HPSF resulted in a lifetime costs of €773 (societal perspective) and a lifetime QALY gain of 0.039 per child versus control schools. HPSF led to lower costs and more QALYs as compared to PAS. From a societal perspective, HPSF had a cost/QALY gained of €19,734 versus control schools, 50% probability of being cost-effective, and beneficial equity impact (0.02 QALYs gained/child for low versus high SES). The cost-effectiveness threshold was surpassed when intervention effects decayed over time.

CONCLUSIONS: HPSF may be a cost-effective and equitable strategy for combatting the lifetime burden of unhealthy lifestyles. The win-win situation will, however, only be realised if the intervention effect is sustained into adulthood for all SES groups.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ( NCT02800616 ). Registered 15 June 2016 - Retrospectively registered.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1887
Number of pages15
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2020


  • Cost-effectiveness
  • Health impact modelling
  • Lifestyle prevention
  • Childhood obesity

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