Lifestyle after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to recurrence and all-cause mortality

M. van Zutphen*, H.C. Boshuizen, M.F. Kenkhuis, E. Wesselink, A.J.M.R. Geijsen, J.H.W. de Wilt, H.K. van Halteren, E.J.S. Bilgen, E.T.P. Keulen, M.L.G. Janssen-Heijnen, S.O. Breukink, M.J.L. Bours, D.E. Kok, R.M. Winkels, M.P. Weijenberg, E. Kampman, F.J.B. van Duijnhoven

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: An unhealthy lifestyle is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but it is unclear whether overall lifestyle after a CRC diagnosis is associated with risks of recurrence and mortality.Objectives: To examine associations between postdiagnosis lifestyle and changes in lifestyle after a CRC diagnosis with risks of CRC recurrence and all-cause mortality.Methods: The study population included 1425 newly diagnosed, stage I-III CRC patients from 2 prospective cohort studies enrolled between 2010 and 2016. Lifestyle, including BMI, physical activity, diet, and alcohol intake, was assessed at diagnosis and at 6 months postdiagnosis. We assigned lifestyle scores based on concordance with 2 sets of cancer prevention guidelines-from the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) and the American Cancer Society (ACS)-and national disease prevention guidelines. Higher scores indicate healthier lifestyles. We computed adjusted HRs and 95% CIs using Cox regression.Results: We observed 164 recurrences during a 2.8-year median follow-up and 171 deaths during a 4.4-year median follow-up. No associations were observed for CRC recurrence. A lifestyle more consistent with the ACS recommendations was associated with a lower all-cause mortality risk (HR per +1 SD, 0.85; 95% CI: 0.73-0.995). The same tendency was observed for higher WCRF/AICR (HR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.78-1.08) and national (HR, 0.90; 95% CI: 0.77-1.05) lifestyle scores, although these associations were statistically nonsignificant. Generally, no statistically significant associations were observed for BMI, physical activity, diet, or alcohol. Improving one's lifestyle after diagnosis (+1 SD) was associated with a lower all-cause mortality risk for the ACS (HR, 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67-0.96) and national (HR, 0.84; 95% CI: 0.70-0.999) scores, yet was statistically nonsignificant for the WCRF/AICR score (HR, 0.94; 95% CI: 0.78-1.13).Conclusions: A healthy lifestyle after CRC diagnosis and improvements therein were not associated with the risk of CRC recurrence, but were associated with a decreased all-cause mortality risk.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1447-1457
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2021


  • colorectal cancer
  • survival
  • recurrence
  • lifestyle
  • body mass index
  • physical activity
  • diet
  • alcohol
  • DIET


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