Objective: To investigate attainment of important life goals and to examine whether self-efficacy, tenacity in goal pursuit and flexibility in goal adjustment contribute to adaptation by affecting levels of emotional distress and quality of life in patients with newly acquired brain injury.
Methods: Data were collected from a prospective clinical cohort study of 148 patients assessed after discharge home (mean time since injury = 15 weeks) and one year later. At follow-up, attainment of life goals (set at baseline) and satisfaction with attainment was scored (10-point scale) and patients were asked how they adjusted unattained goals. Emotional distress was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), quality of life with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-9), self-efficacy with the TBI Self-efficacy Questionnaire (SEsx) and tenacity and flexibility with the Assimilative/Accommodative Coping Questionnaire (AACQ). Random effects regression analyses and structural equation modelling were used.
Results: In total, only 13 % of initial life goals were achieved in one year. Patients who maintained efforts to reach their original goals had higher average levels of tenacity, but did not differ in level of self-efficacy compared with patients that disengaged. Patients with higher self-efficacy were more successful in attaining important life goals, which correlated with higher quality of life. Patients with higher self-efficacy, higher tenacity in goal pursuit, and higher flexibility in goal adjustment were less emotionally distressed, again correlating with higher quality of life.
Conclusions: To optimise adaptation it seems appropriate to promote self-efficacy and both tenacity and flexibility during rehabilitation treatment.
- self efficacy
- quality of life
- brain injury
- coping skills
- NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL REHABILITATION
- STRUCTURAL MODEL
- DEPRESSION SCALE
- HOSPITAL ANXIETY