Kidney Disease Associated With Mono-allelic COL4A3 and COL4A4 Variants: A Case Series of 17 Families

S.G.I.'. Woud, I.M. Rood, E. Steenbergen, B. Willemsen, H.B. Dijkman, M. van Geel, J. Schoots, J.F.M. Wetzels, D. Lugtenberg, J.K.J. Deegens, E.M.H.F. Bongers*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Rationale & Objective: Mono-allelic variants in COL4A3 and COL4A4 (COL4A3/COL4A4) have been identified in a spectrum of glomerular basement membrane nephropathies, including thin basement membrane nephropathy and autosomal dominant Alport syndrome. With the increasing use of next generation sequencing, mono-allelic COL4A3/COL4A4 variants are detected more frequently, but phenotypic heterogeneity impedes counseling. We aimed to investigate the phenotypic spectrum, kidney biopsy results, and segregation patterns of patients with mono-allelic COL4A3/COL4A4 variants identified by whole exome sequencing. Study Design: Case series. Setting & Participants: We evaluated clinical and pathologic characteristics of 17 Dutch index patients with mono-allelic variants in COL4A3/ COL4A4 detected by diagnostic whole exome sequencing and 25 affected family members with variants confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results: Eight different mono-allelic COL4A3/ COL4A4 variants were identified across members of 11 families, comprising 7 glycine substituted missense variants and 1 frameshift variant. All index patients had microscopic hematuria at clinical presentation (median age 43 years) and 14 had (micro)albuminuria/proteinuria. All family members showed co-segregation of the variant with at least hematuria. At end of follow-up of all 42 individuals (median age 54 years), 16/42 patients had kidney function impairment, of whom 6 had kidney failure. Reports of kidney biopsies of 14 patients described thin basement membrane nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, minimal change lesions, and Alport syndrome. Electron microscopy images of 7 patients showed a significantly thinner glomerular basement membrane compared with images of patients with idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and other hereditary glomerular diseases. No genotype -phenotype correlations could be established. Limitations: Retrospective design, ascertainment bias toward severe kidney phenotypes, and familial hematuria. Conclusions: This study confirms the wide phenotypic spectrum associated with mono-allelic COL4A3/COL4A4 variants, extending from isolated microscopic hematuria to kidney failure with high intra-and interfamilial variability.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100607
Number of pages13
JournalKidney Medicine
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2023

Keywords

  • DOMINANT ALPORT-SYNDROME
  • AUTOSOMAL-DOMINANT
  • COL4A3/COL4A4 MUTATIONS
  • COL4A3 MUTATIONS
  • NATURAL-HISTORY
  • HEMATURIA
  • PREDISPOSES
  • NEPHROPATHY
  • PROTEINURIA
  • NPHS2

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