Rationale & Objective: Mono-allelic variants in COL4A3 and COL4A4 (COL4A3/COL4A4) have been identified in a spectrum of glomerular basement membrane nephropathies, including thin basement membrane nephropathy and autosomal dominant Alport syndrome. With the increasing use of next generation sequencing, mono-allelic COL4A3/COL4A4 variants are detected more frequently, but phenotypic heterogeneity impedes counseling. We aimed to investigate the phenotypic spectrum, kidney biopsy results, and segregation patterns of patients with mono-allelic COL4A3/COL4A4 variants identified by whole exome sequencing. Study Design: Case series. Setting & Participants: We evaluated clinical and pathologic characteristics of 17 Dutch index patients with mono-allelic variants in COL4A3/ COL4A4 detected by diagnostic whole exome sequencing and 25 affected family members with variants confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Results: Eight different mono-allelic COL4A3/ COL4A4 variants were identified across members of 11 families, comprising 7 glycine substituted missense variants and 1 frameshift variant. All index patients had microscopic hematuria at clinical presentation (median age 43 years) and 14 had (micro)albuminuria/proteinuria. All family members showed co-segregation of the variant with at least hematuria. At end of follow-up of all 42 individuals (median age 54 years), 16/42 patients had kidney function impairment, of whom 6 had kidney failure. Reports of kidney biopsies of 14 patients described thin basement membrane nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, minimal change lesions, and Alport syndrome. Electron microscopy images of 7 patients showed a significantly thinner glomerular basement membrane compared with images of patients with idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and other hereditary glomerular diseases. No genotype -phenotype correlations could be established. Limitations: Retrospective design, ascertainment bias toward severe kidney phenotypes, and familial hematuria. Conclusions: This study confirms the wide phenotypic spectrum associated with mono-allelic COL4A3/COL4A4 variants, extending from isolated microscopic hematuria to kidney failure with high intra-and interfamilial variability.
|Number of pages||13|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Apr 2023|
- DOMINANT ALPORT-SYNDROME
- COL4A3/COL4A4 MUTATIONS
- COL4A3 MUTATIONS