Cognitive load theory states that well-designed learning material minimizes extraneous cognitive load and optimizes germane cognitive load within the thresholds of available cognitive resources. In this study, the extraneous cognitive load is minimized by avoiding temporal split attention with regard to supportive information (i.e., conceptual models or 'theory') and the germane cognitive load is optimized by using schematic representations of this information to direct learner's attention to concepts relevant for learning. A 2 x 2 between-groups design with the factors supportive information (before or during practice) and schematic representation (before or during practice) was used to investigate whether this balance between extraneous and germane load leads to more effective and efficient learning. It was found that the 'supportive during, schema before' format indeed yielded a higher learning efficiency than the 'supportive before, schema before' and the supportive during, schema during' format but no differences were found for learning effectiveness (i.e., test performance).
Kester, L., Lehnen, C., van Gerven, P. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2006). Just-in-time, schematic supportive information presentation during cognitive skill acquisition. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(1), 93-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2005.01.008