BACKGROUND: Dairy consumption has been postulated to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic disturbances. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of dairy consumption with body weight and other components of the metabolic syndrome. DESIGN: We used cross-sectional data for 2064 men and women aged 50-75 y who participated in the Hoorn Study. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel. Dairy consumption was assessed by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The median consumption of total dairy products was 4.1 servings/d. After adjustment for potential confounders (ie, dietary factors, physical activity, smoking, income, educational level, and antihypertensive medication), total dairy consumption was significantly associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (beta +/- SE: -0.31 +/- 0.12 mm Hg/serving) and higher fasting glucose concentrations (0.04 +/- 0.02 mmol/L per serving), but not with body weight or other metabolic variables (ie, lipids, postload glucose, or insulin). When different dairy products were distinguished, borderline significant (P < 0.10) inverse associations were observed for dairy desserts, milk, and yogurt with systolic (-1.26 +/- 0.58, -0.57 +/- 0.34, and -1.28 +/- 0.74 mm Hg/serving, respectively) and diastolic (-0.58 +/- 0.31, -0.57 +/- 0.18, and -0.35 +/- 0.40 mm Hg/serving, respectively) blood pressure, whereas cheese consumption was positively associated with body mass index (0.15 +/- 0.08/serving). CONCLUSION: In an elderly Dutch population, higher dairy consumption was not associated with lower weight or more favorable levels of components of the metabolic syndrome, except for a modest association with lower blood pressure.
Snijder, M. B., van der Heijden, A. A., van Dam, R. M., Stehouwer, C. D., Hiddink, G. J., Nijpels, G., Heine, R. J., Bouter, L. M., & Dekker, J. M. (2007). Is higher dairy consumption associated with lower body weight and fewer metabolic disturbances? The Hoorn Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(4), 989-995. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/85.4.989