Irregular spiking in free calcium concentration in single, human platelets. Regulation by modulation of the inositol trisphosphate receptors

R.M.A. van Gorp Beisser, M.A.H. Feijge, M.W.J. Vuist, M.B. Rook, J.W.M. Heemskerk

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Abstract

Irregular spiking in free calcium concentration in single, human platelets. Regulation by modulation of the inositol trisphosphate receptors.

van Gorp RM, Feijge MA, Vuist WM, Rook MB, Heemskerk JW.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Fluorescence ratio imaging indicates that immobilized, aspirin-treated platelets, loaded with Fura-2, respond to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate- (InsP3)-generating agonists such as thrombin by high-frequency, irregular rises in cytosolic [Ca2+]i with spikes that vary in peak level and peak-to-peak interval. This differs from the regular [Ca2+]i oscillations observed in other, larger cells. We found that the thiol-reactive compounds thimerosal (10 microm) and U73122 (10 microm) evoked similar irregular Ca2+ responses in platelets, but in this case in the absence of InsP3 generation. Thrombin-induced spiking was acutely abolished by inhibiting phospholipase C or elevating intracellular cAMP levels, while spiking with sulfhydryl reagents was only partially blocked by cAMP elevation. Confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-3-loaded platelets indicated that, with all agonists or conditions, the irregular spikes were almost instantaneously raised in various regions within a single platelet. When using saponin-permeabilized platelets, we found that InsP3-induced Ca2+ release from stores was stimulated by modest Ca2+ concentrations, pointing to a mechanism of InsP3-dependent Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release (CICR). This process was completely inhibitable by heparin. The Ca2+ release by InsP3, but not the CICR sensor, was negatively regulated by cAMP elevation. Thimerosal treatment did not release Ca2+ from intracellular stores, but markedly potentiated the stimulatory effect of InsP3. In contrast, U73122 caused a heparin/cAMP-insensitive Ca2+ leak from stores that differed from those used by InsP3. Taken together, these results demonstrate that InsP3 receptor channels play a crucial role in the irregular, spiking Ca2+ signal of intact platelets, even when induced by agents such as thimerosal or U73122 which do not stimulate InsP3 formation. The irregular Ca2+ release events appear to be subjected to extensive regulation by: (a) InsP3 level, (b) the potentiating effect of elevated Ca2+ on InsP3 action via CICR, (c) InsP3 channel sensitization by sulfhydryl (thimerosal) modification, (d) InsP3 channel-independent Ca2+ leak with U73122, and (e) down-regulation via cAMP elevation. The observation that individual Ca2+ peaks were generated in various parts of a platelet at similar intervals and amplitudes points to effective cooperation of the various stores in the Ca2+-release process.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1543-1552
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Biochemistry
Volume269
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2002

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