Introducing the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST): A quick and non-invasive approach to elicit robust autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses

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Abstract

Stress-related research has employed several procedures to activate the human stress system. Two of the most commonly used laboratory paradigms are the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and the Cold Pressor Test (CPT). We combined their most stressful features to create a simple laboratory stress test capable of eliciting strong autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses. In comparison with the CPTand its variations, our stress tool (labeled the Maastricht Acute Stress Test; MAST) was found to yield superior salivary cortisol responses, while being equally effective in eliciting subjective stress reactions and (systolic and diastolic) blood pressure increases (study 1; N = 80). In study 2 (N = 20), we directly compared the effectiveness of the MASTand TSSTand found that both methods elicited similar subjective, salivary alpha-amylase, and salivary cortisol stress responses. Finally, we developed and evaluated an appropriate no-stress control version of the MAST that was similar to the stress version, although it did not comprise stressful components (study 3; N = 40). Collectively, our results confirm the effectiveness of the MAST in terms of subjective, autonomic, and most importantly glucocorticoid stress responses. Thus, as a brief and simple stress protocol, the MAST holds considerable promise for future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1998-2008
Number of pages11
JournalPsychoneuroendocrinology
Volume37
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2012

Keywords

  • Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)
  • Cold Pressor Test (CPT)
  • Stress reactivity
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis
  • ACUTE PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS
  • HPA AXIS RESPONSES
  • COLD-PRESSOR TEST
  • CORTISOL RESPONSES
  • SEX-DIFFERENCES
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL-RESPONSE
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS
  • MEMORY PERFORMANCE
  • MENSTRUAL-CYCLE
  • DISEASE

Cite this

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title = "Introducing the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST): A quick and non-invasive approach to elicit robust autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses",
abstract = "Stress-related research has employed several procedures to activate the human stress system. Two of the most commonly used laboratory paradigms are the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and the Cold Pressor Test (CPT). We combined their most stressful features to create a simple laboratory stress test capable of eliciting strong autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses. In comparison with the CPTand its variations, our stress tool (labeled the Maastricht Acute Stress Test; MAST) was found to yield superior salivary cortisol responses, while being equally effective in eliciting subjective stress reactions and (systolic and diastolic) blood pressure increases (study 1; N = 80). In study 2 (N = 20), we directly compared the effectiveness of the MASTand TSSTand found that both methods elicited similar subjective, salivary alpha-amylase, and salivary cortisol stress responses. Finally, we developed and evaluated an appropriate no-stress control version of the MAST that was similar to the stress version, although it did not comprise stressful components (study 3; N = 40). Collectively, our results confirm the effectiveness of the MAST in terms of subjective, autonomic, and most importantly glucocorticoid stress responses. Thus, as a brief and simple stress protocol, the MAST holds considerable promise for future research.",
keywords = "Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), Cold Pressor Test (CPT), Stress reactivity, Autonomic nervous system, Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, ACUTE PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS, HPA AXIS RESPONSES, COLD-PRESSOR TEST, CORTISOL RESPONSES, SEX-DIFFERENCES, PHYSIOLOGICAL-RESPONSE, PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS, MEMORY PERFORMANCE, MENSTRUAL-CYCLE, DISEASE",
author = "T. Smeets and S. Cornelisse and C.W.E.M. Quaedflieg and T. Meyer and M. Jelicic and H. Merckelbach",
year = "2012",
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T1 - Introducing the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST): A quick and non-invasive approach to elicit robust autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses

AU - Smeets, T.

AU - Cornelisse, S.

AU - Quaedflieg, C.W.E.M.

AU - Meyer, T.

AU - Jelicic, M.

AU - Merckelbach, H.

PY - 2012/12

Y1 - 2012/12

N2 - Stress-related research has employed several procedures to activate the human stress system. Two of the most commonly used laboratory paradigms are the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and the Cold Pressor Test (CPT). We combined their most stressful features to create a simple laboratory stress test capable of eliciting strong autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses. In comparison with the CPTand its variations, our stress tool (labeled the Maastricht Acute Stress Test; MAST) was found to yield superior salivary cortisol responses, while being equally effective in eliciting subjective stress reactions and (systolic and diastolic) blood pressure increases (study 1; N = 80). In study 2 (N = 20), we directly compared the effectiveness of the MASTand TSSTand found that both methods elicited similar subjective, salivary alpha-amylase, and salivary cortisol stress responses. Finally, we developed and evaluated an appropriate no-stress control version of the MAST that was similar to the stress version, although it did not comprise stressful components (study 3; N = 40). Collectively, our results confirm the effectiveness of the MAST in terms of subjective, autonomic, and most importantly glucocorticoid stress responses. Thus, as a brief and simple stress protocol, the MAST holds considerable promise for future research.

AB - Stress-related research has employed several procedures to activate the human stress system. Two of the most commonly used laboratory paradigms are the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and the Cold Pressor Test (CPT). We combined their most stressful features to create a simple laboratory stress test capable of eliciting strong autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses. In comparison with the CPTand its variations, our stress tool (labeled the Maastricht Acute Stress Test; MAST) was found to yield superior salivary cortisol responses, while being equally effective in eliciting subjective stress reactions and (systolic and diastolic) blood pressure increases (study 1; N = 80). In study 2 (N = 20), we directly compared the effectiveness of the MASTand TSSTand found that both methods elicited similar subjective, salivary alpha-amylase, and salivary cortisol stress responses. Finally, we developed and evaluated an appropriate no-stress control version of the MAST that was similar to the stress version, although it did not comprise stressful components (study 3; N = 40). Collectively, our results confirm the effectiveness of the MAST in terms of subjective, autonomic, and most importantly glucocorticoid stress responses. Thus, as a brief and simple stress protocol, the MAST holds considerable promise for future research.

KW - Trier Social Stress Test (TSST)

KW - Cold Pressor Test (CPT)

KW - Stress reactivity

KW - Autonomic nervous system

KW - Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis

KW - ACUTE PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

KW - HPA AXIS RESPONSES

KW - COLD-PRESSOR TEST

KW - CORTISOL RESPONSES

KW - SEX-DIFFERENCES

KW - PHYSIOLOGICAL-RESPONSE

KW - PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS

KW - MEMORY PERFORMANCE

KW - MENSTRUAL-CYCLE

KW - DISEASE

U2 - 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.04.012

DO - 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.04.012

M3 - Article

VL - 37

SP - 1998

EP - 2008

JO - Psychoneuroendocrinology

JF - Psychoneuroendocrinology

SN - 0306-4530

IS - 12

ER -