Objective: To determine the reliability and internal validity of the Hypospadias Objective Penile Evaluation (HOPE)-score, a newly developed scoring system assessing the cosmetic outcome in hypospadias. Patients and methods: The HOPE scoring system incorporates all surgically-correctable items: position of meatus, shape of meatus, shape of glans, shape of penile skin and penile axis. Objectivity was established with standardized photographs, anonymously coded patients, independent assessment by a panel, standards for a "normal" penile appearance, reference pictures and assessment of the degree of abnormality. A panel of 13 pediatric urologists completed 2 questionnaires, each consisting of 45 series of photographs, at an interval of at least 1 week. The inter-observer reliability, intra-observer reliability and internal validity were analyzed. Results: The correlation coefficients for the HOPE-score were as follows: intra-observer reliability 0.817, inter-observer reliability 0.790, "non-parametric" internal validity 0.849 and "parametric" internal validity 0.842. These values reflect good reproducibility, sufficient agreement among observers and a valid measurement of differences and similarities in cosmetic appearance. Conclusions: The HOPE-score is the first scoring system that fulfills the criteria of a valid measurement tool: objectivity, reliability and validity. These favorable properties support its use as an objective outcome measure of the cosmetic result after hypospadias surgery.
- Outcome assessment
- Scoring system