Intra- and interfamily phenotypic diversity in pain syndromes associated with a gain-of-function variant of Na(V)1.7

Mark Estacion, Chongyang Han, Jin-Sung Choi, Janneke G. J. Hoeijmakers, Giuseppe Lauria, Joost P. H. Drenth, Monique M. Gerrits, Sulayman D. Dib-Hajj, Catharina G. Faber, Ingemar S. J. Merkies, Stephen G. Waxman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Sodium channel Na(V)1.7 is preferentially expressed within dorsal root ganglia (DRG), trigeminal ganglia and sympathetic ganglion neurons and their fine-diamter axons, where it acts as a threshold channel, amplifying stimuli such as generator potentials in nociceptors. Gain-of-function mutations and variants (single amino acid substitutions) of NaV1.7 have been linked to three pain syndromes: Inherited Erythromelalgia (IEM), Paroxysmal Extreme Pain Disorder (PEPD), and Small Fiber Neuropathy (SFN). IEM is characterized clinically by burning pain and redness that is usually focused on the distal extremities, precipitated by mild warmth and relieved by cooling, and is caused by mutations that hyperpolarize activation, slow deactivation, and enhance the channel ramp response. PEPD is characterized by perirectal, periocular or perimandibular pain, often triggered by defecation or lower body stimulation, and is caused by mutations that severely impair fast-inactivation. SFN presents a clinical picture dominated by neuropathic pain and autonomic symptoms; gain-of-function variants have been reported to be present in approximately 30% of patients with biopsy-confirmed idiopathic SFN, and functional testing has shown altered fast-inactivation, slow-inactivation or resurgent current. In this paper we describe three patients who house the Na(V)1.7/I228M variant. Methods: We have used clinical assessment of patients, quantitative sensory testing and skin biopsy to study these patients, including two siblings in one family, in whom genomic screening demonstrated the I228M Na(V)1.7 variant. Electrophysiology (voltage-clamp and current-clamp) was used to test functional effects of the variant channel. Results: We report three different clinical presentations of the I228M Na(V)1.7 variant: presentation with severe facial pain, presentation with distal (feet, hands) pain, and presentation with scalp discomfort in three patients housing this Na(V)1.7 variant, two of which are from a single family. We also demonstrate that the Na(V)1.7/I228M variant impairs slow-inactivation, and produces hyperexcitability in both trigeminal ganglion and DRG neurons. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate intra-and interfamily phenotypic diversity in pain syndromes produced by a gain-of-function variant of Na(V)1.7.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)92
JournalMolecular Pain
Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2011


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