Intervention to reduce adolescent hookah pipe use and satisfy basic psychological needs

Z. Kader*, R. Crutzen, R. Nicolette

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review


Background: Hookah pipe use is a public health concern and threat to adolescents' health. self-determination theory asserts that satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN) will contribute to adolescents developing optimally. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design an intervention to reduce adolescent hookah pipe use and satisfy their BPN. Methods: A modified delphi approach was implemented using a two-phased approach. Phase 1 included reviews and empirical research that formed part of the needs analysis. Phase 2 was the development of the intervention in collaboration with stakeholders from academia, policy and practice (n = 25). The stakeholders formed the sample for this study. Phase 1 informed phase 2. Phase 2 was implemented through a 4-hour workshop with the stakeholders. The workshop was audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Principal Results: The results indicated that a holistic four-pronged approach focusing on (1) the hookah pipe user, (2) the family, (3) after school recreation activities and (4) the teacher and community was needed as a model to intervene in adolescent hookah pipe use and satisfy their BPN. The intervention was described using the RE-AIM framework which considers reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the intervention. An intervention has been cocreated by the researchers and the stakeholders. Conclusions: This intervention is valuable because it can support the healthy development of adolescents by reducing hookah pipe use, ease the pressure on health systems, raise awareness and potentially serve as a preventative measure for younger children who may want to experiment. Furthermore, it provides opportunities for families, school and community structures to encourage satisfaction of BPN.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1782099
Number of pages46
JournalCogent Psychology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • adolescent
  • basic psychological needs
  • behaviors
  • community
  • delphi
  • engagement
  • family environment
  • health
  • hookah pipe
  • physical/social environment
  • prevalence
  • satisfaction
  • self-determination theory
  • smoking
  • strategies
  • tobacco
  • tobacco use
  • waterpipe

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